Fastening piece and mini axis

1. The application of stainless steel in fastening piece
Stainless steel fastening pieces are widely used in auto industry, infrastructure, family appliances, communication and furniture industry and various other industries. Cr-Ni austenite steel is mainly used in fastening pieces industry, which occupies 85%, and Cr series (ferrite, martensite) occupy 15%. The main brand is 0Cr18Ni9, in recent years, the austenite steel that contains Cu and is easy cold upsetting forming has become the main steel type. The fact is, by considering the actual requirements, most stainless steel brand can be used to make fastening pieces, but the large sums of current fastening pieces mainly use austenite stainless steel.

In China, in the stainless steel fastening piece standard GB3098.6 -86, due to steel quality, the stainless steel is divided into three classes including A class (austenite), C class (martensite) and F class (ferrite), and among each class, rankings are made due to differences of the steel type.

The classification of stainless steel fastening pieces

Class
Serial number
Steel type
A(austenite)
A1
A2
A4
1Cr18Ni9 series steel
0Cr18Ni9 series steel
0Cr17Ni12Mo2 series steel
C(martensite)
F(ferrite)
C1
C2
C4
F1
Cr12 type mertensite stee
Cr-Ni mertensite series steel
Cr13 type mertensite steel
Cr17 type mertensite steel

A class steel is used to make bolts above 70 grade (σb>700MPa), C class is used to make bolts above 70 grade and which require quenching and tempering treatment, F class is fit for making bolts above 60 grade. 700MPa)

In order to smoothly produce cold upsetting bolts, the chemical components of various stainless steel must be controlled strictly, and some frequently used brands must be implemented according to the regulations in the following table.

Control value for chemical components of cold upsetting steel

Steel brand
Chemical components to be controlled, %
C
Si
Mn
P
S
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
N
Ti
0Cr15(429) ≤0.05 0.30/
0.50
0.30/
0.50
≤0.035 ≤0.030 14.0/
16.0
≤0.50 - - ≤0.025 -
0Cr17(430) ≤0.04 0.30/
0.50
0.30/
0.50
≤0.035 ≤0.020 16.5/
17.5
≤0.50 ≤0.50 - ≤0.025 -
0Cr17Mo
(434)
≤0.04 0.30/
0.50
0.30/
0.50
≤0.035 ≤0.015 16.5/
17.5
≤0.50 0.95/
1.25
- ≤0.025 -
1Cr13(410) 0.09/
0.15
0.30/
0.50
0.30/
0.50
≤0.035 ≤0.015 11.5/
13.5
≤0.50 ≤0.50 - - -
1Cr17Ni2
(431)
0.15/
0.20
0.30/
0.50
0.30/
0.50
≤0.035 ≤0.020 15.5/
16.8
1.50/
2.20
≤0.50 - - -
0Cr18Ni9
(304)
≤0.05 0.20/
0.60
1.40/
1.80
≤0.035 ≤0.030 18.0/
19.5
8.0/
9.5
- ≤1.00 ≤0.06 -
0Cr18Ni9
(304M)
0.03/
0.05
0.30/
0.60
1.50/
2.00
≤0.035 ≤0.030 18.0/
19.2
9.0/
10.0
- ≤1.00 ≤0.06 -
0Cr18Ni9Cu2
(304HC)
≤0.05 0.20/
0.60
1.50/
2.00
≤0.035 ≤0.030 17.5/
18.5
8.0/
9.5
- 1.00/
3.00
≤0.06 -
0Cr18Ni9Cu3
(304HQ)
≤0.04 0.20/
0.40
0.60/
0.90
≤0.035 ≤0.030 17.3/
18.5
9.3/
10.0
- 3.00/
4.00
≤0.03 -
0Cr17Ni12
Mo2(316)
≤0.06 0.30/
0.60
1.40/
1.80
≤0.035 ≤0.030 16.5/
17.5
10.5/
13.5
2.00/
2.45
- ≤0.06 -
00Cr17Ni14
Mo2(316L)
≤0.03 0.40/
0.70
0.80/
1.20
≤0.035 ≤0.010 17.0/
18.0
12.5/
13.0
2.00/
2.45
- ≤0.03 -
0Cr18Ni12
(305)
≤0.04 0.30/
0.60
1.50/
2.00
≤0.035 ≤0.030 17.5/
19.0
11.5/
13.5
- ≤1.00 ≤0.06 -
0Cr16Ni18
(384)
≤0.04 0.30/
0.60
1.00/
1.50
≤0.035 ≤0.030 15.0/
17.0
17.0/
19.0
- - ≤0.03 -
0Cr18Ni10
Ti(321)
0.04/
0.06
0.20/
0.70
1.00/
1.50
≤0.035 ≤0.030 17.2/
19.0
9.50/
10.50
- - ≤0.03 0.40/
0.70

Recently, the successfully developed super austenite stainless steel, super martensite stainless steel, super ferrite stainless steel, super double phase stainless steel, and martensite aging stainless steel can also be used to produce fastening piece, and the choice shall be made according to detailed service condition.

2. The application of stainless steel in mini type axis.
With the popularization of electrical appliances and the development of office automation, the developing of relevant products like camera, hard disc, soft disc, electrograph, copycat, etc, are very swift. And the requiring quantity of mini motor, driving system coupling shaft , etc, which are related with the above products, have increased accordingly. For the miniaturization of these axis and the requirements of anti-abrasion as well as anti-corrosion, they are commonly made of stainless steel. The important components of mechatronics are often required to be anti-corrosion, high strength, non-magnetic, so under different service conditions, different types of stainless steel should be chosen. The mini axis use martensite and austenite stainless steel, in order to facilitate machining and machining precision, the usage of easy cutting stainless steel is comparatively large. Commonly, austenite stainless steel is used to make the mini axis that require non-magnetic, and martensite stainless steel that can be heat hardened is used to make mini axis that require characters like anti-abrasion, anti-trauma, anti-bending. For the purpose to make austenite stainless steel to achieve the hardness need, commonly use cold machining method to acquire them. The main characteristics of the stainless steel used for mini axis are shown in the table below:

Characteristics of stainless steel used for mini axis

Steel type
Brand
Hardness
HV0.5
σb/MPa
Vertical elastic coefficient
/ MPa
Horizontal elastic coefficient
/ MPa
magnetic permea-
bility (μ)
Thermal expansi-
vity (0-100℃) X10-6/K
Martensite stainless steel
3Cr13
Y3Cr13(including S)
Y3Cr13(including Pb)
7Cr13Mo
11Cr17
480/620
480/620
480/620
>630
>650
1568/2009
1568/2009
1568/2009
-
-
205800
205800
205800
210700
21560
78400
78400
78400
79380
79380
-
-
-
-
-
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.1
10.6
Austenite stainless steel
1Cr18Mn8Ni5N
Y1Cr18Ni9
Y1Cr18Ni9N
0Cr18Ni9
0Cr19Ni9N
0Cr17Ni12Mo2
0Cr18Ni12N
0Cr17Mn15Ni2N
(Japan TN15MH)
>400
200/270
>350
400/550
200/350
200/350
>400
>500
 
>1274
519/784
>1078
1372/2009
588/1078
588/784
>1372
>1715
 
196000
191100
191100
191100
191100
191100
191100
188160
 
71540
68600
68600
68600
68600
68600
68600
68600
 
>2.5
<1.01
<1.01
>2.5
<1.01
<1.01
<1.01
<1.01
 
15.7
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3
16.0
17.0
12.6
 
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